Sunday, January 17, 2010

Researchers Develop Method for Distinguishing Ancient Human DNA from Modern Day Contaminants | GenomeWeb Daily News | Sequencing | GenomeWeb

Researchers Develop Method for Distinguishing Ancient Human DNA from Modern Day Contaminants | GenomeWeb Daily News | Sequencing | GenomeWeb
"NEW YORK (GenomeWeb News) – Researchers from the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology and the Russian Academy of Sciences have come up with a way to overcome modern human DNA contamination — a major obstacle in past ancient human DNA sequencing efforts....

Based on the DNA patterns present in mitochondria, the researchers concluded that the Russian remains are roughly 30,000 years old — in the same range as previous estimates that put the skeleton's age at between 30,000 and 33,000 years old....

The team is currently trying to collect more samples from early modern human populations. And the new method may have applications for studies of historical population patterns throughout Europe and elsewhere, Krause explained, such as the effects of an ice age occurring in Europe around 20,000 years ago."

Friday, January 15, 2010

Bible Possibly Written Centuries Earlier, Texts Suggests

Bible Possibly Written Centuries Earlier, Texts Suggests
"Scientists have discovered the earliest known Hebrew writing — an inscription dating from the 10th century B.C., during the period of King David's reign....

'It indicates that the Kingdom of Israel already existed in the 10th century BCE and that at least some of the biblical texts were written hundreds of years before the dates presented in current research,' said Gershon Galil, a professor of Biblical Studies at the University of Haifa in Israel, who deciphered the ancient text."

Tuesday, January 12, 2010

LexiLine Journal #27-L - 2002 : Paviland Cave - Serpens Caput - South Wales

Update:

New methods of dating have dated what is said to be human bone collagen at Paviland to ca. 30000 BC. It is very hard to argue against these kinds of chronological materials, even though the radiocarbon dating game has been shifting its data continuously ever since it was initially applied to artefacts and bones as a chronological tool.

We are VERY skeptical that humans in that era had the kind of red ochre burial found at Paviland, which has no comparable anywhere in the world at that date. We think something is very flawed with this data.


See
Red Lady of Paviland (in interim identified as a male)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Red_Lady_of_Paviland

Higham, et al., The earliest evidence for anatomically modern humans in north-western Europe, Nature 479, 521–524 (24 November 2011),
Olaf Jöris, Martin Street, At the end of the 14C time scale -- the Middle to Upper Paleolithic record of western Eurasia, Forschungsbereich Altsteinzeit des Römisch-Germanischen Zentralmuseums, Schloß Monrepos, Neuwied. Journal of Human Evolution 55 (2008) 782–802 http://www.anth.uconn.edu/faculty/adler/JHE 55(5)/4. Joris & Street 2008 JHE.pdf.


B. Wohlfarth et al. in
have pointed out that AMS radiocarbon dating has pitfalls because of the small sample sizes used. 

Jöris & Street (cited above) have written generally about chronology in that era

"[I]t is increasingly clear that the database for constructing a chronology for the period under consideration (ca. 40–30 ka 14 C BP) is flawed, and that major contextual and methodological problems have been underestimated (cf. Blockley et al., 2008)."


________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ old posting follows _______


This material was originally posted at LexiLine (687 and 689) and then at LexiLine Journal #27-L - 2002 : Paviland Cave - Serpens Caput - South Wales
I have uploaded
paviland.gif and
paviland.tif
to the Ancient Britain Files.


Paviland is one of the archaeological sites in the United Kingdom which demonstrates the scope of confusion present in mainstream archaeology - as one can see from
http://www.archaeology.co.uk/issues/ca160/ca160.htm
http://www.esc.cam.ac.uk/oistage3/Secure/OIS-3i.html
http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/timelines/wales/paviland.shtml
http://scarab.newport.ac.uk/pavi/paviland.html
http://intarch.ac.uk/antiquity/a-green.html

As noted at
http://www.adonde.com.pe/fundacion5000/AfarLuc1.htm
"PAVILAND CAVE
Location: Wales
This limestone cave was home to what has become known as "The Red Lady of Paviland". The remains of this young man (originally thought to be a woman) were stained with red ochre - perhaps indication of religious beliefs. This young man was also found with stone, bones and ivory tools as well as with many types of animal bones. When this cave was originally found the remains inside of it were explained by the Big Flood. The animal remains found within the cave were thought to have been swept into the cave by the flood waters and the skeleton was thought to have been buried there after the waters retreated and "man" settled in England.
"
IN FACT
As noted at http://www.neanderthal-modern.com/genetic2.htm:
"A bone from an earlier modern human, buried at the Paviland Cave in Wales 26,000 years ago [that is totally false], just one or two thousand years after Neanderthals had vanished, has also yielded a control-region sequence matching those of present-day people. But the researchers who extracted this sequence are uncertain whether it is genuinely ancient or might instead have come from a living person who handled the bone (Sykes, 2000). "
Read again "the DNA matches present-day people" - So there you have it - the DNA sequence is MODERN and the radiocarbon people have botched it terribly again.

The reason that artifacts are found at Paviland is that Merlin (Aesculapius) kept his souvenirs here of his worldwide journey with the Argonauts - this includes the ancient African necklace, pieces of ivory (from Africa) and mastodon bone, which he probably brought with him from Siberia, and many other artifacts of his voyage. Perhaps he also kept some old human skulls there which he brought from elsewhere on his voyage.

For a picture of the African necklace found at Paviland see
http://emuseum.mnsu.edu/archaeology/sites/europe/paviland_cave.html

All mainstream dating of the things found at Paviland is thus totally unreliable and mostly false.

As noted at
http://www.britarch.ac.uk/ba/ba61/feat3.shtml:
"... confirmed the burial site by finding a spread of ochre associated with ivory rods parallel to the cave wall, and added to our understanding of how the body - which was incomplete at the time of discovery probably because of marine erosion - had been interred. The bones were deeply stained with red ochre, and the grave goods - ivory rod and bracelet fragments, and perforated periwinkle shells - were all similarly stained."
As stated at
http://www.croydoncavingclub.org.uk/Archive/Pelobates/069/S07.htm
all evidence for alleged ancient human occupation in the United Kingdom prior to the ice age comes from only four places: Paviland, Kent's Cavern, Gough's Cave and Creswell Crags - all of which I have shown to be megalithic sites in ca. 3117 BC.

Mainstream archaeologists have erred terribly here and genetic DNA evidence denies the veracity of their conclusions entirely.

If we were to believe the archaeologists' dating, we then had one human here from about 26,000 BC - surviving the period of glaciation together with Mastodon bones (in England ?!!!) and an African necklace - and then nothing until 20,0000 years later. This is all just wishful thinking by the archaeologists. In fact, the glaciation eliminated all traces of human occupation in the North and everything we find of human habitation is after that period.

[Update September 26, 2006]

The issue of Paviland is important, not just for our megalithic research. If we accept the radiocarbon date of ca. 25,000 years ago for the burial at Paviland, then this is the OLDEST human ever found in Europe - which stretches the imagination a bit.

It would mean that the shaman's burial took place prior to the ice age, survived a vast cover of ice intact, together with Mastodon bones and an African necklace and many other artifacts. Pretty farfetched really.

Here is what is written at
http://emuseum.mnsu.edu/archaeology/sites/europe/paviland_cave.html
"Paviland Cave
In 1823, the first recorded discovery of fossil human remains took place at Goat's Hole Cave in Paviland on the Gower peninsula of South Wales. The excavator, Rev. William Buckland initially thought that it was the remains of a woman, probably of a Roman prostitute or witch. It was later discovered that they were the remains of a man, but the name "Red Lady of Paviland" is still used.

The remains were discovered buried in red clay in the cave. It was the first evidence of a ritual burial where a young man was buried and covered in red ochre and accompanied by grave goods mad out of bone, antler, and ivory. The remains date back to about 26,000 b.p. Paviland is the richest Early Upper Paleolithic site in the British Isles and is the only ceremonial burial of the Aurignacian age. This site, with over 40 radiocarbon dates, holds our understanding of the chronology of human activity and settlement from about 30,000 - 21,000 years ago.

The Red Lady of Paviland was buried with ivory ornaments and perforated sea-shell necklaces among other items.

Sources

Stephen Aldhouse-Green and Paul Pettitt, "Paviland Cave:
Contextualizing the `Red Lady."
Antiquity."
So, that is the - not undisputed - theory.

What speaks against this date?

1. We otherwise have no record of human burial prior to about 8000 BC anywhere, and certainly not in the sophistication found at Paviland.

2. The DNA analysis indicates the man is "modern", i.e. post-ice age.

3. The bones were soaked with red ochre - are we getting the radiocarbon date of something in the red ochre?

4. There are no records otherwise of Mastodons in the UK here - so Mastodon bones or ivory here were brought here from elsewhere in an age where travel to Mastodon-areas was possible by boat - this puts the date at no earlier than about 4000 BC.

5. The African Necklace finds no counterpart in 25,000 BC but would be well suited to the date I set to Paviland, which is ca. 3000 BC.

6. The burial involved a "shaman", "sorcerer" or "witch" - and, indeed, the first of this kind of burial ever found on earth. We have no records of such shamans in Europe prior to the ice age. But we do have a legend in the UK of a great shaman in remote days - his name was handed down to us as Merlin of legend and locally as "Mother Meldrum", a witch who lived part of the year on one cave (IMO Paviland - summer) and part of the year in another cave (IMO
Kents Cavern - winter). See
www.exmoor-nationalpark.gov.uk/Resources/Downloads/exmoor_access_l.pdf
where it is written:
"Stories about witches include Mother Meldrum, who lived in a cave near Tarr Steps in the summer and in another cave in the Valley of Rocks during the winter ".
(One cave on the Exmoor Coast - now assigned as the cave of Mother Meldrum by locals - is as good as inaccessible. See
http://www.geocities.com/exmoorwalker/. Another alleged and doubtful
location for the summer residence is found at
http://www.westcountrynow.com/main/itineraries/tours_lornadoone.cfm
where it is written:
"From Dunster take a drive to Exford en-route you will see Dunkery
Beacon, the highest point on Exmoor. The Beacon, used by the Doones
[Latvian Udeni - the "water people", i.e. Tautha de Danaan] to light
the way to their encampment, is now marked by a cairn of stones
[megalithic !]. Exford is situated on the banks of the river Exe and
is overlooked by high moorland. This is the parish where Tom Faggus
contrived to join forces with a group of men sent to apprehend him,
tricked them into emptying their guns and the robbed them at the
point of his own. From here you can travel south to Dulverton which
lies on the river Barle and has many old buildings of interest and
is also home of the Exmoor National Park Visitor Centre. All Saints
Church has a set of stained glass windows donated by Sir George
Williams, the founder of the YMCA, who was born at nearby Ashway
Farm. The ancient clapper bridge and Tarr Steps are probably of Iron
Age origins. This was the summer home of Mother Meldrum, the wise
woman of the story who warned John Ridd against the Doones."
The Valley of Rocks is described at
www.moorlandrover.co.uk/exmoor.htm:
"Our first stop this morning is the ancient clapper bridge at TARR
Steps on the River BARLE. From the ancient ridge road across
Sandyway and Fyldon we have distant views of the whole of North
Devon. A narrow coastal road takes us via Lee Abbey and Mother
MELDRUM'S CAVE into the VALLEY OF ROCKS. LYNTON – scene of a flood
disaster in 1952 – is on the agenda and we pause for tea beside the
river at WATERSMEET. "
An area prone to flooding is not a very likely area for an ancient residence - the ancients were smarter than that.

7. The bones found are "singular" - why if there was an ancient
community here has nothing else been found from that period. Why are
all the rest of the finds in this area from a period ca. 3000 BC?

17 LexiLine Newsletter 2002 Stonehenge Megaliths 1

Originally posted at 17 LexiLine Newsletter 2002 Stonehenge Megaliths 1

17 LexiLine Newsletter 2002 Stonehenge Megaliths 1

Millions of people have seen Stonehenge, either in person or on television, and many millions more have taken photographs. Indeed, perhaps some of our members have photos of Stonehenge at home from an English vacation. You are in for a surprise - look at them again.

Although we all have seen the "stones" pictured sometime and somewhere, we have not really looked closely at the exact "megaliths", we just see the "stone circle", much like a popular book about megaliths by the same title, which does not get beyond the stone circles.

The fact is that the Megaliths of Stonehenge - as all megaliths - are also carved into various forms and, more importantly, contain cup marks and holes representing specific stars in the heavens, many of which (but certainly not all) can still be CLEARLY identified today, as I am doing.

I have uploaded the following files to the folder Ancient Britain in the LexiLine files online at:
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/LexiLine/ [or the newer URL
http://tech.groups.yahoo.com/group/LexiLine/]

OVERVIEW GRAPHICS

Two files are OVERVIEW files of the Stonehenge ground plan, as shown in my interpretation. These are:

stonehengecircles.gif
stonehengecircle.gif



Some of the larger figures (such as the serpent and the outlying Scorpio and Sagittarius) that I have been able to identify on that plan from various photographs are still very speculative, barring substantiation by others.

The larger overview of the Stonehenge Barrows has already been uploaded some time ago to our LexiLine files at Ancient Britain as

stnhgbr2.gif (below you see a smaller version)


SARSENS, TRILITHONS, LENTILS

After the ground plan, we start with the sarsens (outer ring of (30) large megaliths, also spelled sarcens), trilithons (inner ring of (10) large megaliths) and lentils (top flat stones connecting two sarsens or trilithons) and show how these mark certain stars in the heavens. Obviously, and as we shall see, cupmarks on the top lentils mark stars closer to the pole star.

The outer 30 SAR-SEN-S are the MOON STATIONS or LUNAR MANSIONS, Sarsen IMO (in my opinion) being a word taken from Indo-European e.g. Latvian ZAR "branch, division" and SIENa "wall", i.e. "demarcation". SIN later was then just used an alternative name for the Moon. The inner horseshoe-shape of 10 TRILITHONS ("three stones, i.e. 2 trilithons plus lentil") in 5 pairs marks the Zodiac with Hydra/Leo and Cancer not represented by a pair of trilithons, so that the horseshoe of 10 stones reaches out toward the "ends" of the Milky Way.

This is that section of the Milky Way with a break in it, which is marked by the sky section from Cancer and the head of Hydra to the tail of Hydra.

Since this represents 1/6th of the heavens at Stonehenge, covering 4320 years, we can easily calculate that Hydra at Stonehenge stretched from the head of Hydra to the star gamma-Hydrae, just below Spica in Virgo, for this star of course then marked Virgo and a new constellation. However, Hydra apparently covered 1/4 of the Heavens originally and pi-Hydrae was in fact then the original tail end, as marked today by astronomers. Hydra thus originally covered 91 days of star time, with its middle "lowest star" Xi-Hydrae at the Summer Solstice and the head and tail equidistant from that point according to the correct "stretched" representation of constellations on the horizon by the Heifetz Planisphere.

CHRONOLOGY

The markings on the Stonehenge Megaliths date the largest stone circles of Stonehenge to 1749 BC, resolving the issue of the dating of the megaliths of Stonehenge. The date 1749 BC is two periods of 684 years after 3117 BC, which as I have long claimed, was the start of the "modern civilized calendar".

Recall, 684 years was a Kingdom, calculated mathematically by taking the length of a Saros Cycle of 18 years multiplied by the length of a Metonic Cycle of 19 years multiplied by 2, giving a very good long-term eclipse cycle.

As for the dating, this confirms the mainstreamers, as Gerald S. Hawkins writes in Stonehenge Decoded, Doubleday, 1965: "both Avebury phases were probably contemporary with the Stonehenge building. Broken bits of pottery found in excavations at the site and two Beaker graves found at the bases of stones of the Avebury-Sanctuary avenue indicate that this tremendous structure was erected about 1750 B.C."

My interpretations of Stonehenge by astronomy date the large megaliths at Stonehenge to 1749 BC.

THE HEEL STONE

uploaded as

heelstone.gif
heelstn2.gif



We can easily determine this date from the stars marked on the Heel Stone, which marks the Summer Solstice in 1749 BC. The Left Side of the Heel Stone marks Gemini and Orion. The Right Side of the Heel Stone marks Ursa Major, Leo, Cancer and Hydra.

In other words, the Summer Solstice is in-between the two sides and the Heel Stone "tilts" because Gemini tilts over the Summer Solstice point in the heavens at 1749 BC, but not quite to it, accounting for the markings on the ground to its left at Stonehenge. The scholars are in error in thinking the Heel Stone originally stood upright. The tilt was intended.

SLAUGHTER STONE

The Slaughter Stone, of which, however, I have no really good photo, so this identification is provisional, seems to show Ursa Minor (the heavenly axe) - but it could be Ursa Major. When I get a good photo, this issue will be resolved.

uploaded as
slaughst.gif
TRILITHONS

The megaliths of Stonehenge are numbered by convention and you see this numbering at stonehengecircle.gif

Two of the stones and especially the lentil were easy to identify. These are:

TRILITHON 57 TRILITHON 58 and LENTIL

Trilithon 57 marks Cassiopeia and Andromeda.
Trilithon 58 marks Triangulum and Aries.
The Lentil above them and joining them marks Ursa Minor and Cepheus.
That very well marks that portion of the heavens.

This is shown at the uploaded file:

tril5758.gif

More about Stonehenge in the next Newsletter.

9 LexiLine Newsletter 2002 Clava Deciphered Ancient Linear Astronomy

Originally posted at 9 LexiLine Newsletter 2002 Clava Deciphered Ancient Linear Astronomy

Clava Deciphered - Ancient "Linear" Astronomy - 8 Seasons 9 LexiLine Newsletter 2002

Dear LexiLiners,

Due to my decipherment of other sites, I have been able to review my
previous interpretation of the cairns at Balnuaran of Clava near
Inverness of Scotland and decipher these definitively. My initial
interpretation of this site was not incorrect but needed amendment,
since it became clear that the ancients used stars much nearer to the
Pole than I had initially thought.

This decipherment is now found in the Ancient Britain folder as the
file

clavamap.tif [here now reproduced as clavamap.png]
(the previous file of the same name, as well as a recently posted
amended version have both been deleted).



Time and time again I am taught the lesson in my decipherments that
SIMPLICITY is the key to knowledge and understanding of the Neolithic
period of astronomy.

The new uploaded file shows that the ancients in 3117 BC calculated
the Pole Star position and the North Ecliptic Pole (the non-moving
Center of Heaven around which precession rotates and the
ecliptic "circulates") using the three brightest stars which are in
the skies on or near the circle of precession - these brightest stars
are Polaris in Ursa Minor, Deneb in Cygnus and Vega in Lyra. There
are no more.

The decipherment shows that the linear distance
between Polaris and Deneb
and between the Pole Star and Vega
in 3117 BC (otherwise not),
is THE SAME as the linear distance between
a) the South Pole and alpha in the Southern Triangle
b) alpha in the Southern Triangle and the head stars of Scorpio
(Graffias, Dschubba)
c) Graffias or Dschubba the head of Serpens Caput
d) the head of Serpens Caput and the North Pole Star position at 3117
BC - at all other times, this distance does not work for the distance
between Serpens Caput and the North Pole Star. This again gives us
another proof for the accuracy of the chronology.

On the Heifetz Planisphere, this linear distance is
2.8 centimeters.
In the software program Starry Night Pro, using the normal non-zoomed
display, this distance on the screen can be measured as
ca.
13 centimeters
with the distances between Vega and Deneb and the Pole Star and
Polaris in 3117 BC being half that at
6.5 centimeters.

This linear distance was then also used to divide the stars along the
ecliptic into their initial "seasonal positions" and was the origin
of what we today call the Zodiac of stars - which runs along the
ecliptic. Using this linear distance of 13 centimeters and marking
divisions on the ECLIPTIC we then get the following 8 segments -
perhaps the first formal human division of the ecliptic in this
manner.

1) AUTUMN EQUINOX
From Antares (viz. Dschubba & Graffias) Scorpio at the AUTUMN EQUINOX
to Spica (Virgo)
2) From Spica in Virgo to Zosma (Duhr) and Chort in Leo at the SUMMER
SOLSTICE

3) SUMMER SOLSTICE
From Zosma and Chort in Leo at the SUMMER SOLSTICE to Castor and
Pollux in GEMINI
4) From Castor and Pollux in GEMINI to the VERNAL EQUINOX at
Aldebaran in Taurus

VERNAL EQUINOX
5) From Aldebaran at the Vernal Equinox to the "cord of the fish"
(this explains how this "cord" originated and where it was originally
placed) at beta-Andromeda and eta-Piscum
6) from the Cord of the Fish to the WINTER SOLSTICE at the bucket of
Aquarius just to the left of the prow of the ship of Capricorn

WINTER SOLSTICE
7) From the Winter Solstice at Aquarius and Capricorn to the large
number of stars of Sagittarius at Nunki (sigma-Sagittarii), Kaus
Borealis (lambda-Sagittarii) and Kaus Australis (epsilon-Sagittarii).
8) From sigma-Sagittarii to Scorpio at Graffias viz Dschubba at the
AUTUMN EQUINOX.

Thus, the same "linear distance" was used to mark 8 divisions along
the ecliptic as was used to measure the sky and earth from south pole
to north pole and also to calculate pole stars and ecliptic poles, as
at Balnuaran of Clava. These ancient men were ASTRONOMERS of the
first rank..

We have evidence of this very old initial division of the heavens in
the ancient Latvian 8 seasons and also find the similar practice in
ancient Scotland, where a similar division of 8 seasons is found.

Enjoy,

Andis

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